Advertisement

Current evaluation of amenorrhea

  • The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine
      Amenorrhea is the absence or abnormal cessation of the menses. Primary and secondary amenorrhea describe the occurrence of amenorrhea before and after menarche, respectively.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Fertility and Sterility
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. Stedman’s Medical Dictionary. 27th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia2000: 56
        • Herman-Giddens M.E.
        • Slora E.J.
        • Wasserman R.C.
        • Bourdony C.J.
        • Bhapkar M.V.
        • Koch G.G.
        • et al.
        Secondary sexual characteristics and menses in young girls seen in office practice: a study from the Pediatric Research in Office Settings network.
        Pediatrics. 1997; 99: 505-512
        • Pettersson F.
        • Fries H.
        • Nillius S.J.
        Epidemiology of secondary amenorrhea. I. Incidence and prevalence rates.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1973; 117: 80-86
        • Bachmann G.
        • Kemmann E.
        Prevalence of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea in a college population.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1982; 144: 98-102
        • Reindollar R.M.
        • Byrd J.R.
        • McDonough P.G.
        Delayed sexual development: a study of 252 patients.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1981; 140: 371-380
        • Reindollar R.H.
        • Novak M.
        • Tho S.P.
        • McDonough P.G.
        Adult-onset amenorrhea: a study of 262 patients.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1986; 155: 531-543
        • Mashchak C.A.
        • Kletzky O.A.
        • Davajan V.
        • Mishell D.R.
        Clinical and laboratory evaluation of patients with primary amenorrhea.
        Obstet Gynecol. 1981; 57: 715-721
        • Insler V.
        Gonadotophin therapy: new trends and insights.
        Int J Fertil. 1988; 33: 85-97
        • Doody K.M.
        • Carr B.R.
        Amenorrhea.
        Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1990; 17: 361-387
        • Jagiello G.
        Prevalence of testicular feminization.
        Lancet. 1962; 1: 329
        • Wilson J.D.
        Syndromes of androgen resistance.
        Biol Reprod. 1992; 46: 168-173
        • Lobo R.A.
        Primary and secondary amenorrhea.
        in: Fraser I.S. Jansen R. Lobo R.A. Whitehead M. Estrogens and progestogens in clinical practice. Churchill Livingstone, London1998
        • Reid R.L.
        Amenorrhea.
        in: Copeland L.J. Textbook of gynecology. 2nd ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia1996
        • Manuel M.
        • Katayama P.K.
        • Jones Jr, H.W.
        The age of occurrence of gonadal tumors in intersex patients with a Y chromosome.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1976; 124: 293-300
        • Turner H.H.
        A syndrome of infantilism, congenital webbed neck, and cubitus valgus.
        Endocrinology. 1938; 23: 566
      2. Turner’s syndrome.
        West J Med. 1982; 137: 32-44
        • Toledo S.P.
        • Brunner H.G.
        • Kraaij R.
        • Post M.
        • Dahia P.L.
        • Hayashida C.Y.
        • et al.
        An inactivating mutation of the luteinizing hormone receptor causes amenorrhea in a 46,XX female.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996; 81: 3850-3854
        • Aittomaki K.
        • Lucena J.L.
        • Pakarinen P.
        • Sistonen P.
        • Tapanainen J.
        • Gromoll J.
        • et al.
        Mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene causes hereditary hypergonadotropic ovarian failure.
        Cell. 1995; 82: 959-968
        • Allingham-Hawkins D.J.
        • Babul-Hirji R.
        • Chitayat D.
        • Holden J.J.
        • Yang K.T.
        • Lee C.
        • et al.
        Fragile X premutation is a significant risk factor for premature ovarian failure: the International Collaborative POF in Fragile X study—preliminary data.
        Am J Med Genet. 1999; 83: 322-325
        • Laml T.
        • Preyer O.
        • Umek W.
        • Hengstschlager M.
        • Hanzal H.
        Genetic disorders in premature ovarian failure.
        Hum Reprod Update. 2002; 8: 483-491
        • Morishima A.
        • Grumbach M.M.
        • Simpson E.R.
        • Fisher C.
        • Qin K.
        Aromatase deficiency in male and female siblings caused by a novel mutation and the physiological role of estrogens.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995; 80: 3689-3698
        • Jones G.S.
        • De Moraes-Ruehsen M.
        A new syndrome of amenorrhea in association with hypergonadotropism and apparently normal ovarian follicular apparatus.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1969; 104: 597-600
        • Van Campenhout J.
        • Vauclair R.
        • Maraghi K.
        Gonadotropin-resistant ovaries in primary amenorrhea.
        Obstet Gynecol. 1972; 40: 6-12
        • Conway G.S.
        • Kaltsas G.
        • Patel A.
        • Davies M.C.
        • Jacobs H.S.
        Characterization of idiopathic premature ovarian failure.
        Fertil Steril. 1996; 65: 337-341
        • Laml T.
        • Preyer J.
        • Umek W.
        • Hengstschlager M.
        • Hanzal E.
        Genetic disorders in premature ovarian failure.
        Hum Reprod Update. 2002; 8: 483-491
        • LaBarbera A.R.
        • Miller M.M.
        • Ober C.
        • Rebar R.W.
        Autoimmune etiology in premature ovarian failure.
        Am J Reprod Immunol Microbiol. 1988; 16: 115-122
        • Hoek A.
        • Schoemaker J.
        • Drexhage H.A.
        Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity.
        Endocr Rev. 1997; 18: 107-134
        • Nelson L.M.
        • Anasti J.N.
        • Flack M.R.
        Premature ovarian failure.
        in: Adashi E.Y. Rock J.A. Rosenwaks Z. Reproductive endocrinology, surgery, and technology. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia1996: 1393-1410
        • Rebar R.W.
        • Connolly H.V.
        Clinical features of young women with hypergonadotropic amenorrhea.
        Fertil Steril. 1990; 53: 804-810
        • Touraine P.
        • Plu-Bureau G.
        • Beji C.
        • Mauvais-Jarvis P.
        • Kuttenn F.
        Long-term follow-up of 246 hyperprolactinemic patients.
        Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2001; 80: 162-168
        • Brenner S.H.
        • Lessing J.B.
        • Quagliarello J.
        • Weiss G.
        Hyperprolactinemia and associated pituitary prolactinomas.
        Obstet Gynecol. 1985; 65: 661-664
        • Schlechte J.
        • Dolan K.
        • Sherman B.
        • Chapler F.
        • Luciano A.
        The natural history of untreated hyperprolactinemia: a prospective analysis.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989; 68: 412-418
        • Marshall J.C.
        • Eagleson C.A.
        • McCartney C.R.
        Hypothalamic dysfunction.
        Mol Cell Endocinol. 2002; 183: 29-32
        • Imani B.
        • Eijkemans M.J.
        • te Velde E.R.
        • Habbema J.D.
        • Fauser B.C.
        A nomogram to predict the probability of live birth after clomiphene citrate induction of ovulation in normogonadotropic oligoamenorrheic infertility.
        Fertil Steril. 2002; 77: 91-97
        • Rarick L.D.
        • Shangold M.M.
        • Ahmed S.W.
        Cervical mucus and serum estradiol as predictors of response to progestin challenge.
        Fertil Steril. 1990; 54: 353-355
        • Nakamura S.
        • Douchi T.
        • Oki T.
        • Ijuin H.
        • Yamamoto S.
        • Nagata Y.
        Relationship between sonographic endometrial thickness and progestin-induced withdrawal bleeding.
        Obstet Gynecol. 1996; 87: 722-725
        • Frisch R.E.
        • McArthur J.W.
        Menstrual cycles: fatness as a determinant of minimum weight for height necessary for their maintenance or onset.
        Science. 1974; 185: 949-951
        • Lucas A.R.
        • Crowson C.S.
        • O’Fallon W.M.
        • Melton 3rd, L.J.
        The ups and downs of anorexia nervosa.
        Int J Eat Disord. 1999; 26: 397-405
        • Warren M.P.
        • Goodman L.R.
        Exercise-induced endocrine pathologies.
        J Endocrinol Invest. 2003; 26: 873-878
        • Rosenfield R.L.
        Clinical review 6: diagnosis and management of delayed puberty.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990; 70: 559-562
        • Hall J.E.
        Physiologic and genetic insights into the pathophysiology and management of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
        Ann Endocrinol. 1999; 60: 93-101
        • Layman L.C.
        • McDonough P.G.
        • Cohen D.P.
        • Maddox M.
        • Tho S.P.
        • Reindollar R.H.
        Familial gonadotropin-releasing hormone resistance and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in a family with multiple affected individuals.
        Fertil Steril. 2001; 75: 1148-1155
        • Sheehan H.L.
        Simmond’s disease due to post-partum necrosis of the anterior pituitary.
        Q J Med. 1939; 8: 277
        • Davies M.C.
        • Hall M.L.
        • Jacobs H.S.
        Bone mineral loss in young women with amenorrhoea.
        BMJ. 1990; 301: 790-793
        • Martin K.A.
        • Hall J.E.
        • Adams J.M.
        • Crowley Jr, W.F.
        Comparison of exogenous gonadotropins and pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone for induction of ovulation in hypogonadotropic amenorrhea.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993; 77: 125-129
        • Moran C.
        • Azziz R.
        • Carmina E.
        • Dewailly D.
        • Fruzzetti F.
        • Ibanez L.
        • et al.
        21-Hydroxylase-deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia is a progressive disorder: a multicenter study.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000; 183: 1468-1474
        • Legro R.S.
        Polycystic ovary syndrome: the new millennium.
        Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001; 184: 87-93
        • Bili H.
        • Laven J.
        • Imani B.
        • Eijkemans M.J.
        • Fauser B.C.
        Age-related differences in features associated with polycystic ovary syndrome in normogonadotrophic oligo-amenorrhoeic infertile women of reproductive years.
        Eur J Endocrinol. 2001; 145: 749-755
        • Zawadzki J.K.
        • Dunaif A.
        Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: towards a rational approach.
        in: Dunaif A. Givens J.R. Haseltine F.P. Merriam G.M. Polycystic ovary syndrome. Blackwell, Boston1992: 377-384
        • Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group
        Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome.
        Fertil Steril. 2004; 81: 19-25
        • Dunaif A.
        • Thomas A.
        Current concepts in the polycystic ovary syndrome.
        Annu Rev Med. 2001; 52: 401-419
        • Legro R.S.
        • Kunselman A.R.
        • Dodson W.C.
        • Dunaif A.
        Prevalence and predictors of risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective, controlled study in 254 affected women.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999; 84: 165-169
        • Dunaif A.
        • Finegood D.T.
        Beta-cell dysfunction independent of obesity and glucose intolerance in the polycystic ovary syndrome.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996; 81: 942-947

      Linked Article