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Development and current applications of assisted fertilization

      Since the very early establishment of in vitro insemination, it became clear that one of the limiting steps is the achievement of fertilization. Among the different assisted fertilization methods, intracytoplasmic sperm injection emerged as the ultimate technique to allow fertilization with ejaculated, epididymal, and testicular spermatozoa. This work describes the early steps that brought forth the development of intracytoplasmic sperm injection and its role in assisted reproductive techniques. The current methods to select the preferential male gamete will be elucidated and the concerns related to the offspring of severe male factor couples will be discussed.

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