Advertisement

Caffeine, alcohol, smoking, and reproductive outcomes among couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatments

  • Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón
    Affiliations
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
    Search for articles by this author
  • Jorge E. Chavarro
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts

    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts

    Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    Search for articles by this author
  • Audrey J. Gaskins
    Correspondence
    Reprint requests: Audrey J. Gaskins, Sc.D., Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave., Building II, 3rd Floor, Boston, MA 02115.
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts

    Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    Search for articles by this author
      During the past decade, as the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has continued to increase worldwide, research investigating whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as alcohol, caffeine, and smoking, may affect ART outcomes has grown. Despite the vast literature, there is still uncertainty regarding the effects of some of these exposures on ART outcomes. The objective of this review is to summarize the epidemiologic literature on intakes of caffeine and alcohol, smoking, and reproductive outcomes among women undergoing ART. Of the five epidemiologic studies on caffeine intake and ART outcomes, only one found a significant negative effect of caffeine intake on live birth following ART. There have been six epidemiologic studies exploring whether alcohol intake is associated with fertility outcomes among women undergoing ART. Three studies assessed current alcohol consumption and observed a negative effect on outcomes such as fertilization, embryo quality, and implantation. When alcohol intake in the year before treatment was assessed, no relationships were observed with clinical outcomes following ART. Finally, numerous epidemiologic studies and a handful of meta-analyses have confirmed that female current smokers have worse ART outcomes compared with nonsmokers. Although former smokers tend to have better ART outcomes than current smokers, very few individual studies have investigated the influence of smoking cessation on ART outcomes. Literature on male smoking, drinking, and caffeine habits in relation to ART outcomes is even sparser and inconsistent, making it difficult to draw strong conclusions on that topic. In summary, there is little evidence supporting a detrimental effect of moderate caffeine intake on ART outcomes. Current consumption of alcohol may have a negative effect on ART outcomes, but at present the evidence is limited. Women who currently smoke cigarettes have been consistently found to have poorer ART outcomes, including reduced live birth rates, but a quantification of the benefits of smoking cessation is lacking.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Fertility and Sterility
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Preliminary SART clinic summary report. Available at: https://www.sartcorsonline.com/rptCSR_PublicMultYear.aspx?reportingYear=2016.

      2. Assisted reproductive technology in the United States and Canada: 1995 results generated from the American Society for Reproductive Medicine/Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Registry.
        Fertil Steril. 1998; 69: 389-398
        • Dyer S.
        • Chambers G.M.
        • de Mouzon J.
        • Nygren K.G.
        • Zegers-Hochschild F.
        • Mansour R.
        • et al.
        International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies world report: assisted reproductive technology 2008, 2009 and 2010.
        Hum Reprod. 2016; 31: 1588-1609
        • Kushnir V.A.
        • Barad D.H.
        • Albertini D.F.
        • Darmon S.K.
        • Gleicher N.
        Systematic review of worldwide trends in assisted reproductive technology 2004–2013.
        Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2017; 15: 6
        • Sunderam S.
        • Kissin D.M.
        • Crawford S.B.
        • Folger S.G.
        • Jamieson D.J.
        • Warner L.
        • et al.
        Assisted reproductive technology surveillance—United States, 2014.
        MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 2017; 66: 1-24
        • Wright V.C.
        • Chang J.
        • Jeng G.
        • Macaluso M.
        Assisted reproductive technology surveillance—United States, 2003.
        MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 2006; 55: 1-22
        • Rossi B.V.
        • Bressler L.H.
        • Correia K.F.
        • Lipskind S.
        • Hornstein M.D.
        • Missmer S.A.
        Lifestyle and in vitro fertilization: what do patients believe?.
        Fertil Res Pract. 2016; 2: 11
        • Kotsopoulos J.
        • Eliassen A.H.
        • Missmer S.A.
        • Hankinson S.E.
        • Tworoger S.S.
        Relationship between caffeine intake and plasma sex hormone concentrations in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.
        Cancer. 2009; 115: 2765-2774
        • Sisti J.S.
        • Hankinson S.E.
        • Caporaso N.E.
        • Gu F.
        • Tamimi R.M.
        • Rosner B.
        • et al.
        Caffeine, coffee, and tea intake and urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites in premenopausal women.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015; 24: 1174-1183
        • Schliep K.C.
        • Schisterman E.F.
        • Mumford S.L.
        • Pollack A.Z.
        • Zhang C.
        • Ye A.
        • et al.
        Caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones among premenopausal women in the BioCycle Study.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 95: 488-497
        • Curtis K.M.
        • Savitz D.A.
        • Arbuckle T.E.
        Effects of cigarette smoking, caffeine consumption, and alcohol intake on fecundability.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1997; 146: 32-41
        • Jensen T.K.
        • Henriksen T.B.
        • Hjollund N.H.
        • Scheike T.
        • Kolstad H.
        • Giwercman A.
        • et al.
        Caffeine intake and fecundability: a follow-up study among 430 Danish couples planning their first pregnancy.
        Reprod Toxicol. 1998; 12: 289-295
        • Alderete E.
        • Eskenazi B.
        • Sholtz R.
        Effect of cigarette smoking and coffee drinking on time to conception.
        Epidemiology. 1995; 6: 403-408
        • Florack E.I.M.
        • Zielhuis G.A.
        • Rolland R.
        Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine intake and fecundability.
        Prev Med. 1994; 23: 175-180
        • Joesoef M.R.
        • Beral V.
        • Rolfs R.T.
        • Aral S.O.
        • Cramer D.W.
        Are caffeinated beverages risk factors for delayed conception?.
        Lancet. 1990; 335: 136-137
        • Wilcox A.
        • Weinberg C.
        • Baird D.
        Caffeinated beverages and decreased fertility.
        Lancet. 1988; 332: 1453-1456
        • Williams M.
        • Monson R.
        • Goldman M.
        • Mittendorf R.
        • Ryan K.
        Coffee and delayed conception.
        Lancet. 1990; 335: 1603
        • Grodstein F.
        • Goldman M.B.
        • Ryan L.
        • Cramer D.W.
        Relation of female infertility to consumption of caffeinated beverages.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1993; 137: 1353-1360
        • Christianson R.
        • Oechsli F.
        • van den Berg B.
        Caffeinated beverages and decreased fertility.
        Lancet. 1989; 333: 378
        • Klonoff-Cohen H.
        • Bleha J.
        • Lam-Kruglick P.
        A prospective study of the effects of female and male caffeine consumption on the reproductive end points of IVF and gamete intra-fallopian transfer.
        Hum Reprod. 2002; 17: 1746-1754
        • Machtinger R.
        • Gaskins A.J.
        • Mansur A.
        • Adir M.
        • Racowsky C.
        • Baccarelli A.A.
        • et al.
        Association between preconception maternal beverage intake and in vitro fertilization outcomes.
        Fertil Steril. 2017; 108: 1026-1033
        • Abadia L.
        • Chiu Y.H.
        • Williams P.L.
        • Toth T.L.
        • Souter I.
        • Hauser R.
        • et al.
        The association between pre-treatment maternal alcohol and caffeine intake and outcomes of assisted reproduction in a prospectively followed cohort.
        Hum Reprod. 2017; 32: 1846-1854
        • Al-Saleh I.
        • El-Doush I.
        • Grisellhi B.
        • Coskun S.
        The effect of caffeine consumption on the success rate of pregnancy as well various performance parameters of in-vitro fertilization treatment.
        Med Sci Monit. 2010; 16: 598-605
        • Choi J.H.
        • Ryan L.M.
        • Cramer D.W.
        • Hornstein M.D.
        • Missmer S.A.
        Effects of caffeine consumption by women and men on the outcome of in vitro fertilization.
        J Caffeine Res. 2011; 1: 29-34
        • Lyngso J.
        • Ramlau-Hansen C.H.
        • Bay B.
        • Ingerslev H.J.
        • Hulman A.
        • Kesmodel U.S.
        Association between coffee or caffeine consumption and fecundity and fertility: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.
        Clin Epidemiol. 2017; 9: 699-719
        • Greenwood D.C.
        • Thatcher N.J.
        • Ye J.
        • Garrard L.
        • Keogh G.
        • King L.G.
        • et al.
        Caffeine intake during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.
        Eur J Epidemiol. 2014; 29: 725-734
        • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
        ACOG committee opinion no. 462: Moderate caffeine consumption during pregnancy.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 116: 467-468
        • Sachse C.
        • Brockmoller J.
        • Bauer S.
        • Roots I.
        Functional significance of a C>A polymorphism in intron 1 of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 gene tested with caffeine.
        Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999; 47: 445-449
        • Hatch E.E.
        • Wesselink A.K.
        • Hahn K.A.
        • Michiel J.J.
        • Mikkelsen E.M.
        • Sorensen H.T.
        • et al.
        Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and fecundability in a North American preconception cohort.
        Epidemiology. 2018; 29: 369-378
        • Wood A.M.
        • Kaptoge S.
        • Butterworth A.S.
        • Willeit P.
        • Warnakula S.
        • Bolton T.
        • et al.
        Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption: combined analysis of individual-participant data for 599 912 current drinkers in 83 prospective studies.
        Lancet. 2018; 391: 1513-1523
        • Voelker R.
        Even low, regular alcohol use increases the risk of dying of cancer.
        JAMA. 2013; 309: 970
        • Tan C.H.
        • Denny C.H.
        • Cheal N.E.
        • Sniezek J.E.
        • Kanny D.
        Alcohol use and binge drinking among women of childbearing age—United States, 2011–2013.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015; 64: 1042-1046
        • Greenlee A.R.
        • Arbuckle T.E.
        • Chyou P.H.
        Risk factors for female infertility in an agricultural region.
        Epidemiology. 2003; 14: 429-436
        • Grodstein F.
        • Goldman M.B.
        • Cramer D.W.
        Infertility in women and moderate alcohol consumption.
        Am J Public Health. 1994; 85: 1021-1022
        • Hakim R.B.
        • Gray R.H.
        • Zacur H.
        Alcohol and caffeine consumption and decreased fertility.
        Fertil Steril. 1998; 70: 632-637
        • Juhl M.
        • Nyboe Andersen A.M.
        • Gronbaek M.
        • Olsen J.
        Moderate alcohol consumption and waiting time to pregnancy.
        Hum Reprod. 2001; 16: 2705-2709
        • Mikkelsen E.M.
        • Riis A.H.
        • Wise L.A.
        • Hatch E.E.
        • Rothman K.J.
        • Cueto H.T.
        • et al.
        Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study.
        BMJ. 2016; 354: i4262
        • Olsen J.
        • Bolumar F.
        • Boldsen J.
        • Bisanti L.
        • European Study Group on Infertility and Subfecundity
        Does moderate alcohol intake reduce fecundability? A European multicenter study on infertility and subfecundity.
        Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997; 21: 206-212
        • Grodstein F.
        • Goldman M.B.
        • Cramer D.W.
        Infertility in women and moderate alcohol use.
        Am J Public Health. 1994; 84: 1429-1432
        • Klonoff-Cohen H.
        • Lam-Kruglick P.
        • Gonzalez C.
        Effects of maternal and paternal alcohol consumption on the success rates of in vitro fertilization and gamete intrafallopian transfer.
        Fertil Sterility. 2003; 79: 330-339
        • Wdowiak A.
        • Sulima M.
        • Sadowska M.
        • Grzegorz B.
        • Bojar I.
        Alcohol consumption and quality of embryos obtained in programmes of in vitro fertilization.
        Ann Agric Environ Med. 2014; 21: 450-453
        • Rossi B.V.
        • Berry K.F.
        • Hornstein M.D.
        • Cramer D.W.
        • Ehrlich S.
        • Missmer S.A.
        Effect of alcohol consumption on in vitro fertilization.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 117: 136-142
        • Dodge L.E.
        • Missmer S.A.
        • Thornton K.L.
        • Hacker M.R.
        Women's alcohol consumption and cumulative incidence of live birth following in vitro fertilization.
        J Assist Reprod Genet. 2017; 34: 877-883
        • Firns S.
        • Cruzat V.F.
        • Keane K.N.
        • Joesbury K.A.
        • Lee A.H.
        • Newsholme P.
        • et al.
        The effect of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and fruit and vegetable consumption on IVF outcomes: a review and presentation of original data.
        Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2015; 13: 134
        • Havelaar A.H.
        • Kirk M.D.
        • Torgerson P.R.
        • Gibb H.J.
        • Hald T.
        • Lake R.J.
        • et al.
        World Health Organization global estimates and regional comparisons of the burden of foodborne disease in 2010.
        PLoS Med. 2015; 12: e1001923
        • World Health Organization
        WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2015: raising taxes on tobacco.
        in: Tobacco Free Initiative. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland2015
        • Kallen K.
        The impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy on delivery outcome.
        Eur J Public Health. 2001; 11: 329-333
        • Werler M.M.
        Teratogen update: smoking and reproductive outcomes.
        Teratology. 1997; 55: 382-388
        • Tong V.T.
        • Dietz P.M.
        • Morrow B.
        • D'Angelo D.V.
        • Farr S.L.
        • Rockhill K.M.
        • et al.
        Trends in smoking before, during, and after pregnancy—Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, United States, 40 sites, 2000–2010.
        MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 2013; 62: 1-19
        • Augood C.
        • Duckitt K.
        • Templeton A.A.
        Smoking and female infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Hum Reprod. 1998; 13: 1532-1539
        • Hyland A.
        • Piazza K.M.
        • Hovey K.M.
        • Ockene J.K.
        • Andrews C.A.
        • Rivard C.
        • et al.
        Associations of lifetime active and passive smoking with spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and tubal ectopic pregnancy: a cross-sectional analysis of historical data from the Women's Health Initiative.
        Tob Control. 2015; 24: 328-335
        • Waylen A.L.
        • Metwally M.
        • Jones G.L.
        • Wilkinson A.J.
        • Ledger W.L.
        Effects of cigarette smoking upon clinical outcomes of assisted reproduction: a meta-analysis.
        Hum Reprod Update. 2009; 15: 31-44
        • Cinar O.
        • Dilbaz S.
        • Terzioglu F.
        • Karahalil B.
        • Yücel C.
        • Turk R.
        • et al.
        Does cigarette smoking really have detrimental effects on outcomes of IVF?.
        Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2014; 174: 106-110
        • Weigert M.
        • Hofstetter G.
        • Kaipl D.
        • Gottlich H.
        • Krischker U.
        • Bichler K.
        • et al.
        The effect of smoking on oocyte quality and hormonal parameters of patients undergoing in vitro fertilization–embryo transfer.
        J Assist Reprod Genet. 1999; 16: 287-293
        • Buckley J.P.
        • Keil A.P.
        • McGrath L.J.
        • Edwards J.K.
        Evolving methods for inference in the presence of healthy worker survivor bias.
        Epidemiology. 2015; 26: 204-212
        • Fuentes A.
        • Munoz A.
        • Barnhart K.
        • Arguello B.
        • Diaz M.
        • Pommer R.
        Recent cigarette smoking and assisted reproductive technologies outcome.
        Fertil Steril. 2010; 93: 89-95
        • Winter E.
        • Wang J.
        • Davies M.J.
        • Norman R.
        Early pregnancy loss following assisted reproductive technology treatment.
        Hum Reprod. 2002; 17: 3220-3223
        • van Voorhis B.J.
        • Syrop C.H.
        • Hammitt D.G.
        • Dunn M.S.
        • Snyder G.D.
        Effects of smoking on ovulation induction for assisted reproductive techniques.
        Fertil Steril. 1992; 58: 981-985
        • Freour T.
        • Masson D.
        • Dessolle L.
        • Allaoua D.
        • Dejoie T.
        • Mirallie S.
        • et al.
        Ovarian reserve and in vitro fertilization cycles outcome according to women smoking status and stimulation regimen.
        Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012; 285: 1177-1182
        • Neal M.S.
        • Hughes E.G.
        • Holloway A.C.
        • Foster W.G.
        Sidestream smoking is equally as damaging as mainstream smoking on IVF outcomes.
        Hum Reprod. 2005; 20: 2531-2535
        • Soares S.R.
        • Simon C.
        • Remohi J.
        • Pellicer A.
        Cigarette smoking affects uterine receptiveness.
        Hum Reprod. 2007; 22: 543-547
        • Heger A.
        • Sator M.
        • Walch K.
        • Pietrowski D.
        Smoking decreases endometrial thickness in IVF/ICSI patients.
        Geburtshilfe Frauenheilk. 2018; 78: 78-82
        • Zenzes M.T.
        Smoking and reproduction: gene damage to human gametes and embryos.
        Hum Reprod Update. 2000; 6: 122-131
        • Vanegas J.C.
        • Chavarro J.E.
        • Williams P.L.
        • Ford J.B.
        • Toth T.L.
        • Hauser R.
        • et al.
        Discrete survival model analysis of a couple's smoking pattern and outcomes of assisted reproduction.
        Fertil Res Pract. 2017; 3: 5
        • Radin R.G.
        • Hatch E.E.
        • Rothman K.J.
        • Mikkelsen E.M.
        • Sorensen H.T.
        • Riis A.H.
        • et al.
        Active and passive smoking and fecundability in Danish pregnancy planners.
        Fertil Steril. 2014; 102: 183-191.e2
        • Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine
        Smoking and infertility: a committee opinion.
        Fertil Steril. 2012; 98: 1400-1406
        • Hughes E.G.
        • Lamont D.A.
        • Beecroft M.L.
        • Wilson D.M.
        • Brennan B.G.
        • Rice S.C.
        Randomized trial of a “stage-of-change” oriented smoking cessation intervention in infertile and pregnant women.
        Fertil Steril. 2000; 74: 498-503
        • Ricci E.
        • Al Beitawi S.
        • Cipriani S.
        • Candiani M.
        • Chiaffarino F.
        • Vigano P.
        • et al.
        Semen quality and alcohol intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Reprod Biomed Online. 2017; 34: 38-47
        • Li Y.
        • Lin H.
        • Li Y.
        • Cao J.
        Association between socio-psycho-behavioral factors and male semen quality: systematic review and meta-analyses.
        Fertil Steril. 2011; 95: 116-123
        • Sharma R.
        • Harlev A.
        • Agarwal A.
        • Esteves S.C.
        Cigarette smoking and semen quality: a new meta-analysis examining the effect of the 2010 World Health Organization laboratory methods for the examination of human semen.
        Eur Urol. 2016; 70: 635-645
        • Klonoff-Cohen H.
        • Natarajan L.
        • Marrs R.
        • Yee B.
        Effects of female and male smoking on success rates of IVF and gamete intra-fallopian transfer.
        Hum Reprod. 2001; 16: 1382-1390
        • Kim H.
        • Kim S.K.
        • Yu E.J.
        • Lee J.R.
        • Jee B.C.
        • Suh C.S.
        • et al.
        The prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in Korean infertile couples and the effect of smoking on assisted conception outcomes.
        Clin Exp Reprod Med. 2015; 42: 136-142
        • Karmon A.E.
        • Toth T.L.
        • Chiu Y.H.
        • Gaskins A.J.
        • Tanrikut C.
        • Wright D.L.
        • et al.
        Male caffeine and alcohol intake in relation to semen parameters and in vitro fertilization outcomes among fertility patients.
        Andrology. 2017; 5: 354-361
        • Braga D.P.
        • Halpern G.
        • Figueira Rde C.
        • Setti A.S.
        • Iaconelli Jr., A.
        • Borges Jr., E.
        Food intake and social habits in male patients and its relationship to intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes.
        Fertil Steril. 2012; 97: 53-59