An improvement in surgical technique or a sham? Value of robotic assistance for male reproductive surgery

      Microsurgical approaches for male reproductive surgery have become the gold standard approach for vasectomy reversal and varicocele repair by fellowship-trained male reproductive surgeons. There is little doubt that outcomes are superior with microsurgical compared to non-microsurgical approaches (
      • Pastuszak A.W.
      • Wenker E.P.
      • Lipshultz L.I.
      The history of microsurgery in urology.
      ). Indeed, because of the small size of epididymal tubules, it is not possible to perform end to side vasoepididymostomies without optical magnification. Similarly, there have been significant improvements in outcomes with the application of optical magnification to varicocele repair.
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