Advertisement

Legal and ethical issues in cross-border gestational surrogacy

      This article aims to identify the main legal and ethical issues around international surrogacy. Owing to the legal diversity and ethical background of such a globalized practice, a review of the key existing literature on these two matters has been identified and analyzed. The article also identifies and analyzes the most significant legal solutions provided by supranational jurisdictions when dealing with cases of international surrogacy. The scope of the article includes the efforts to reach a minimum legal framework at the international level, with the aim not to standardize but to provide common legal solutions to those travelling abroad to have a child by means of surrogacy.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      References

        • Caldwell C.E.
        Baby got back? Enforcing guardianship in International surrogacy agreements when tragedy strikes.
        Univ Memphis Law Rev. 2019; : 847-882
        • Trimmings K.
        • Beaumont P.
        International surrogacy arrangements: an urgent need for legal regulation at the International level.
        J Priv Int Law. 2011; 7: 627-644
        • European Parliament
        A comparative study on the regime of surrogacy in EU member states.
        European Union, Brussels2013
        • Fenton-Glynn C.
        International surrogacy before the European Court of Human Rights.
        J Priv Int Law. 2017; 13: 546-567
        • Stoll J.
        Surrogacy arrangements and legal parenthood: Swedish law in a comparative context.
        Uppsala University Publications, Uppsala2013
        • Igareda González N.
        Regulating surrogacy in Europe: common problems, diverse national laws.
        Eur J Womens Stud. 2019; 26: 435-446
        • Shenfield F.
        • de Mouzon J.
        • Pennings G.
        • Ferraretti A.P.
        • Nyboe Andersen A.
        • de Wertet G.
        • et al.
        Cross border reproductive care in six European countries.
        Hum Reprod. 2010; 25: 1361-1368
        • Nelson E.
        Global trade and assisted reproductive technologies: regulatory challenges in international surrogacy.
        J Law Med Ethics. 2013; : 240-253
        • Fenton-Glynn C.
        Outsourcing ethical dilemmas: regulating International surrogacy arrangements.
        Med Law Rev. 2016; 4: 59-75
        • Lamm E.
        • Rubaja N.
        Parámetros jurisprudenciales en los casos de gestación por sustitución internacional. Los lineamientos del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos y sus repercusiones en el contexto global.
        Rev Bioet Derecho. 2016; : 149-170
        • Horsey K.
        • Smith N.
        • McLlean A.
        • Norcross S.
        • Powell A.
        Further evidence for reform: second report of the Surrogacy UK Working Group on Surrogacy Law Reform.
        Surrogacy UK, 2018
        • Horsey K.
        Surrogacy in the UK: myth busting and reform (report of the Surrogacy UK Working Group on Surrogacy Law Reform).
        Surrogacy UK, 2015
        • Adorno R.
        Bioética y dignidad de la persona.
        Tecnos, Madrid1983
        • Ciccarelli J.C.
        • Beckman L.J.
        Navigating rough waters: an overview of psychological aspects of surrogacy.
        J Soc Issues. 2005; 61: 21-43
        • Jafva V.
        • Murray C.
        • Kycett E.
        • MacCallum F.
        • Golombok S.
        Surrogacy: the experience of surrogate mothers.
        Hum Reprod. 2003; 18: 2196-2204
        • Blyth W.
        I wanted to be interesting. I wanted to be able to say I’ve done something with my life: interviews with surrogate mothers in Britain.
        J Reprod Infant Psychol. 1994; 12: 189-198
        • van den Akker O.
        Genetic and gestational surrogate mothers’ experience of surrogacy.
        J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2003; 21: 145-161
        • Farnós E.
        Inscripción en España de la filiación derivada del acceso a la maternidad subrogada en California: cuestiones que platea la Resolución de la DGRN de 18 de febrero de 2009.
        Rev Anal Derecho. 2010; 1: 1-25
        • Lamm E.
        Gestación por sustitución: realidad y derecho.
        Rev Anal Derecho. 2012; 3: 1-49
        • Jadva V.
        Subrogacía en el Reino Unido: Experiencia de padres, niños y madres por encargo.
        in: Esteinou R. La nueva generación social de familias. Tecnologías de reproducción asistida y temas contemporáneos. Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social, México2012: 75-90
        • Golombok S.
        • Ilioi E.
        • Blake L.
        • et al.
        A longitudinal study of families formed through reproductive donation: parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent adjustment at age 14.
        Dev Psychol. 2017; 53: 1966-1977
        • Zadeh S.
        • Ellioli E.
        • Jadva V.
        • Golombok S.
        The perspectives of adolescents conceived using surrogacy, egg or sperm donation.
        Hum Reprod. 2018; 33: 1099-1106
        • Jadva V.
        • Gamble N.
        • Prosser H.
        • Comm B.
        • Imrie S.
        Parents’ relationship with their surrogate in cross-border and domestic surrogacy arrangements: comparison by sexual orientation and location.
        Fertil Steril. 2019; 111: 562-570
        • Pennings G.
        Legal harmonization and reproductive tourism in Europe.
        Hum Reprod. 2004; 19: 2689-2694
        • Pennings G.
        International parenthood via procreative tourism.
        in: Shenfield F. Sureau C. Contemporary ethical dilemmas in assisted reproduction. Informa Health Care, Abingdon2006: 43-56
        • Pennings G.
        • de Wert G.
        • Shenfield F.
        • et al.
        ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law 15: Cross-border reproductive care.
        Hum Reprod. 2008; 23: 2182-2184
        • Ferraretti A.P.
        • Pennings G.
        • Luca Gianaroli L.
        • et al.
        Cross-border reproductive care: a phenomenon expressing the controversial aspects of reproductive technologies.
        Reprod Biomed Online. 2010; 20: 261-266
        • Pennings G.
        Reproductive tourism as moral pluralism in motion.
        J Med Ethics. 2002; 28: 337-340
        • Gupta J.A.
        Toward transnational feminism.
        Eur J Womens Stud. 2006; 13: 23-38
        • Gupta J.A.
        Reproductive biocrossing: Indian egg donors and surrogates in the globalized fertility market.
        Int J Fem Approaches to Bioeth. 2012; 5: 25-51
        • Rudrappa S.
        Discounted life: the process of global surrogacy in India.
        New York University Press, New York2015
        • Matorras R.
        Reproductive exile versus reproductive tourism.
        Hum Reprod. 2005; 20: 3571
        • van Hoof W.
        • Pennings G.
        Extraterritorial laws for cross-border reproductive care: the issue of legal diversity.
        Eur J Health Law. 2012; 19: 187-200
        • Farnós E.
        La reproducción asistida ante el Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos: De Evans c. Reino Unido a Parrillo c. Italia.
        Rev Bioet Derecho. 2016; 36: 93-111