To describe our simplified two-step technique for transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (vNOTES) and to demonstrate the application of the technique.
Step-by-step description of the technique and demonstration of its application using surgical video footage from two different cases.
Tertiary university hospital.
Patient 1 was a 27-year-old G0P0 woman who presented with right lower quadrant pain. Transvaginal ultrasound scan revealed a right ovarian torsion. Patient 2 was a 25-year-old G3P2 woman. She presented with vaginal bleeding and left lower quadrant pain. Her serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin level was 28,313 U/L, and transvaginal ultrasound scan revealed an ectopic pregnancy in the left tube. The decision to perform vNOTES was made for both patients.
As the first step, patients underwent diagnostic vNOTES. The patient was placed in lithotomy position under general anesthesia. By use of a 5-mm trocar with autoretracting blade, a colpotomy was performed on the posterior vaginal wall. Pneumoperitoneum was achieved, and the patient was placed in a Trendelenburg position. A 5-mm 30° rigid endoscope was introduced, and the diagnosis was confirmed. After the confirmation of the diagnosis, we proceeded to the second step. The colpotomy was enlarged with blunt dissection by using Metzenbaum scissors. A self-constructed pessary port was placed through the colpotomy, and pneumoperitoneum was achieved. The therapeutic procedure was then performed. Patient 1 underwent ovarian detorsion with a 5-mm laparoscopic grasper. After the ovary was detorsioned, a 5-mm bipolar instrument was used to achieve hemostasis. Patient 2 underwent left salpingectomy with a 5-mm advanced bipolar device. Hemostasis was verified, and the specimen was extracted through the colpotomy. Procedures ended with the closure of colpotomy with running resorbable sutures.
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Description of the technique and demonstration of its applicability in two common gynecological emergencies.
Both patients were treated successfully by vNOTES. The operating times were 25 minutes and 38 minutes for patient 1 and patient 2, respectively. Patients were discharged on postoperative day 1 without any complications.
Our simplified two-step technique described and demonstrated in this video article is a feasible and practical approach to perform vNOTES. The first step allows the confirmation of the diagnosis and facilitates the colpotomy. The use of the self-constructed pessary port enables to perform surgery with already existing equipment without the need for specialized equipment and without increasing the costs.